40k List-Tech: Winning with War Convocation


Top Secret List

Come check out the second place list at Adepticon 2016, Matt Root’s War Convocation! 

The list-tech segment is a series of articles designed to focus on unique, competitive lists crafted by players in the community in order to provide new and experienced players with tactics, tips, and tricks to use in the heat of battle.

“Victorious warriors win first and then go to war, while defeated warriors go to war first and then seek to win”

― Sun Tzu, The Art of War

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Sorry about missing last week’s List-Tech guys, I was busy with the BroadsideBash results as well as some other work related stuff. Anyways welcome to another List-Tech article, today we have Matt Root’s second place Adepticon War Convocation list. There isn’t anything particularly unique about it, however Matt is an excellent player and the analysis on his list is great for both player wanting to play War Convocation or beat it. As always check out our Tactics Corner for more great content!

Remember to email me at frontlinegamingpeteypab@gmail.com if you want your list featured in an article!

Epic Skitarii

Convocation of WAAAAAGHH (1850pts)

Cult Mechanicus: Codex (2015)

Tech-Priest Dominus (War Conv.)
Conversion field, Digital weapons, Eradication ray, Infoslave Skull, Macrostubber, The Scryerskull Perspicatus

Kataphron Destroyers (War Conv.)
3x Kataphron Destroyer
Cognis flamer, Heavy grav-cannon
Kataphron Destroyers (War Conv.)
3x Kataphron Destroyer
Cognis flamer, Heavy grav-cannon

Skitarii: Codex (2015) (Battle Maniple (War Conv.) 

Onager Dunecrawlers
Cognis heavy stubber, Cognis manipulator, Icarus Array – Twin autocannon, Gatling rockets, Daedalus, Mindscanner probe
Sicarian Infiltrators
Flechette Blasters and Taser Goads, 4x Sicarian Infiltrator
Infiltrator Princeps
Conversion field, Digital weapons, Infoslave Skull, The Phase Taser
Sicarian Ruststalkers
4x Sicarian Ruststalker, Transonic razor, Chordclaw, and Mindscrambler Grenades
Ruststalker Princeps
Conversion field, Digital weapons, Prehensile Dataspike, The Omniscient Mask
Skitarii Rangers
Omnispex, 2x Plasma caliver, 4x Skitarii Ranger
Ranger Alpha
Arc maul, Arc pistol, Arkhan’s Divinator, Conversion field, Digital weapons
Skitarii Vanguard
Omnispex, 2x Plasma caliver, 4x Skitarii Vanguard
Vanguard Alpha
Arc maul, Phosphoenix, Conversion field, Digital weapons,
Sydonian Dragoons
5x Sydonian Dragoon w/ Phosphor Serpentas

Imperial Knights: Codex (2015) (Imperial Knights part)
Knight Crusader w/ Rapid Fire Battle Cannon, Heavy Stubber, Heavy Flamer, Meltagun, Stormspear Rocket Pod, Avenger Gatling Cannon

Space Wolves: Codex (2014) (SW Company of the Great Wolf Detachment)

Lvl 2 Rune Priest
Rune Axe, Bolt Pistol


Fast Attack
3x Drop Pod

FLG skitarii


1) Tell us a little bit about your army, why did you go with certain units? Why did you pick this army list in particular? Is there anything special about your army that you want to highlight?

Well, with War Convocation, a lot of units are set in stone. The wargear options and certain options are more flexible, but that’s also where a lot of the variances are seen in War Convocation armies.

First of all, I go with the Knight Crusader over other knights because BULLETS. YOUZ CAN ALWAYZ UZE MOR DAKKA! While I can certainly appreciate the Str D CC weapon that most knights carry, I can count on two fingers the number of times it actually became relevant (notably, charging a Brass Scorpion and a Stormsurge). Being double barrelled means tons of Dakka, and he often kills 2-3 units a turn alone. Furthermore, there are a rare few number of combat situations where Str 10 with stomp cannot do the job that Str D with stomp can.

As for the rest, it often comes down to relics/wargear. I take the scryerskull precipitation (or however it’s spelled) because rerolling to pen against vehicles is often huge. I give the phaser taser lazer to my infiltrators because it just makes the sergeant better at what he already does. The ruststalkers get the omnipotent mask to make them fearless and to reroll with their haywire grenades, which often spells the difference between doing 2 or 3 HP to 6+ HP against, say, another knight or super heavy. The phosphokleenex is great for drop podding, though I wouldn’t recommend it otherwise, and the rest of the relics are just personal preference. I throw all plasma on my vanguards and rangers because I find the Arc rifles and Transylvanian Aqueducts to be sub-par. The Onager takes the Icarus array, because it guarantees that my opponents will have no flyers in their lists. The moment I don’t take it, I’ll play against 12x night scythes allied to 3x Hive tyrants.

One unit I want to make note of that I think is vastly under appreciated are the chicken walkers (aka Sydonian Dragoons). These things wreck so much face it looks like a picasso painting. Coming with a 5+ cover standard is huge, because that means with shroudsong they are rocking a 2+ cover regardless of where they are on the field. Furthermore, doing extra str 8 hits on the charge on a 6 to hit with 5 guys can do a ridiculous number of wounds or hull points against many things – Knights, Wraithknights, whatever. Plus, they’re fast as hell with dunestrider! I highly recommend them to others.

As for why I picked the army? I love the way it plays. I play my War Convocation aggressively, like a wiener dog going for the ankles. People are surprised at how often I can kill units, and it fits my playstyle of “overload your opponent with threats”. I go for the throat with just about everything, and there is very little I cannot kill with the list.

aaron v matt

Matt Root playing against Aaron Aelong in the finals

2) What expectations did you have for the meta? Were there any armies you were worried about? What match-ups did you feel most comfortable with?

Honestly, I didn’t expect to do NEARLY as well as I did at Adepticon. My list has zero objective secured. Zero. Nada. A goose egg. The missions for Adepticon HEAVILY favored ObSec, so I was often fighting an uphill battle to kill things before the end of the game. While I can easily kill most armies – if you go second with obsec in an Adepticon mission and can live long enough, I’m likely gonna have a bad time. That isn’t to say I can’t beat Obsec – after all, I faced (and beat) a demi company, 21 obj secured Dark Eldar vehicles, and so many Eldar bikes that they were more prevalent then glitter on a cheap stripper. The one match up that I was TRULY worried about was, not so ironically, facing an invisible death star that had objective secured and went second. If it’s not objective secured, I can out-objective it. If it’s not invisible, I can kill it. If it doesn’t go second, I can out-contest it. Guess what I ended up playing in the championship game that I lost to?

There aren’t any really “easy wins” with War Convocation, except against inexperienced players, merely because they don’t know the capabilities of my list. Conversely, there are very few hard counters either, though if a Tau player has enough ignore cover that I can’t disrupt, they can give me a bad day too.


3) Hindsight is 20-20 and looking back on the Adepticon was there anything you would have changed about your list to better accommodate the meta you experienced?

Truthfully? Not really. I could add some obsec to the list in the form of allies, but I came to play my style, not to win (though winning was a nice bonus!). If I had really wanted the best of the best list to compete at A-con, I would have taken -SHOCKINGLY- Eldar or Demi company. But those aren’t my playstyle, plus I have too much respect in myself to play Eldar.

The two games I lost (4th game in day 1, which put me as a first alternate, and the championship game) were both strongly due to the fact that my opponent went second in a 6-objective mission where the objectives were worth 5 points each, and they had obsec units to boot (not to mention the fact that the armies were run by very intelligent players). Hard to counter that unless I change my list drastically, but I love how my army plays, so I expect it will remain largely the same for now.

Some people would argue for a Culexus, which I can absolutely understand – but I find him to be such an annoying crutch. I rarely play a game where his psychic null-ness comes into play, in which case he’s a slow, boring, easy to kill pricey model that requires I take out nearly 200 pts of stuff I like better. Sorry, but your sleek leather body suit just isn’t quite sexy enough to fit into my army, Mr. Culexus.


4. What are some tips or tricks you have for people who might want to start using your army?

READ. YOUR. CODEX. I seriously can’t even stress this enough. It sounds obvious, but there are SO MANY rules and tricks in the codex that people playing the army don’t even know. For example, did you know Infiltrators and Ruststalkers come with a 6++ invul base? Did you know that infiltrators decrease the WS, BS, I and Ld of units by 1 within 6″? Did you know that your Onager Dunecrawler comes with a searchlight, which is actually a BIG deal in Night Fight missions? Did you know the ladies love a man who knows how to handle his enhanced data-tether?

The army is far, far more complex then “Drop in, declare shroudsong, and shoot stuffz!~!”. It has a very high learning curve. However, the army is incredibly rewarding to play if you are willing to put the effort into learning it.

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Did you just win an ITC event? Is your list dominating everyone it crosses? Did you just recently do well with a unique list at a large event? I want to hear about it! Just send it to
Please do not send your army list in a format such as Army Builder, send them in an easy to read, typed format. Thanks!
  • Djbz

    I would have thought that winning with an army where you only pay for the models and not their upgrades would be easy…..

    • Zingbaby

      I didn’t find the list ‘that’ offensive until it got to the Space Wolves piece… yeah the swear-filterbot won’t let me say what I think about lists like that.

      How would you explain the 3 SW Drop Pods with Mechanicum in them “fluff wise” I wonder?

      • Fluff doesn’t matter in tournaments. Tournaments are for winning. Fluff is for storytime at the pub where winning is drinking.

        Which is why I don’t do tourmaments.

        • Zingbaby

          I realize to those people, no it does not – but literally every unit, model, power and option in the game is an abstraction of some sort of Grimdark ‘fluff explanation’. It is still sad to see it exploited in such a way.

          Yay tournaments.

          • To many (I’d say most of the people I’ve ever played with) – the game’s story might as well not exist.

            If you approach the game purely from a gamer standpoint, the pieces are pawns and you assemble them in as mathematically efficient way as possible.

            During my tourney days we actually had a spreadsheet that calculated a power coefficient that used a bit of trig and calculus to come up with a value that gave you a linear number that indicated the overall strength of your force that was refined over the course of two years designed by one of our math professor buddies.

            It was insanely accurate and we built to try to get as close to the max value as we could.

            Story be damned.

        • ZeeLobby

          Yeah, I guess I’m that odd person in the middle. I like to model/paint and create cohesive fluffy forces, but i like to also compete. Luckily now there are other game systems that allow you to do both. Sure lists still aren’t the most broken available, but My average Warmachine list can be broken lists in the hands of a bad player purely because of my skill. That’s not possible at all anymore in 40K.

          • Admiral Raptor

            I think there’s quite a few of us in that middle space. I fully agree with you that 40k just doesn’t work for those who like fluff and decent competition.

            Warmachine is a really well designed game. My group’s ready to take the plunge once V3 hits.

          • ZeeLobby

            Yeah, we’ve had a blast playing so far. Infinity is fun like that too. And some people I know really like Wrath of Kings and Kings of War too.

          • Yeah. It hasn’t really been possible forever, 40k has always been about the list. People will argue that that isn’t so but it is a rare person that can win consistently with mundane lists and thats why tournaments are dominated with netlists and have been since the internet became a thing.

          • ZeeLobby

            Eh. I had middleground lists i would beat bad nob biker lists with. Or even parking lots back in 3rd. There is no list possible with pure Orks/DE that I could field right now that would come close to beating scatbikes. Even against the worst possible player. Unless he literally never shot, and only went for combat…

          • Pablo Martinez

            We have a few top Ork players that win on the regular with really crazy far out Ork lists. Orks have anti-meta options. I can’t say the same for Dark Eldar though. They don’t have a cheap Stompa or amazing biker troops, or anything really.

          • ZeeLobby

            True. While orks definitely have a better toolbox, a top of the line Eldar, Demons or Cron list will still wipe the floor with them. It’s been a long time since Orks have consistently made top 10 at major events.

          • Pablo Martinez

            If they stopped drinking and WAAGHing long enough to give a damn about making top 8s I would have the evidence to prove you wrong. Sadly every good ork player I have met also drinks his weight in alcohol and has an amazing converted army to also worry about. You win this time ZeeLobby

          • ZeeLobby

            Haha. Touché.

          • Drpx

            Oh, but if you are a complete imbecile and newbie I could totally beat your Superfriends and Knights army using nothing but Gretchin and my mad skills!

        • Admiral Raptor

          “winning is drinking” is my new wargame philosophy. I’ve finally found a reliable way to defeat my friends :D. My Johnnie Walker will take on your Wraithknight any day of the week.

          I swear I’m not an alcoholic…

        • JP

          Each player takes one shot of jaegermeister every time they score a victory point. Let them keep scoring for two or three turns, then when they’re good and grogged, turn the tables on them.

      • Bugsculptor

        Actually, the Convocation of Waaagh was a brilliantly fluffy army. Probably the best modelled top tables list I saw at Adepticon!

        It was all painted and converted as a crazy Mekboy’s workshop project, with converted kans etc. You don’t have to worry about allies breaking the fluff when you’re doing a full on counts as army AND going to town on the conversions.

    • Drpx

      That it doesn’t work anymore assumes ITC follows the GW FAQ and doesn’t just keep doing their own rulings. Given that a lot of TOs have been forced to do things themselves up to now it’s possible we could start seeing some serious deviation especially if the consensus is that ITC’s rules are better.

    • generalchaos34

      I really really hate the drop pod taxi service in terms of gameplay and especially fluff (your guard command squad should emerge from the pod as a pile of bone fragments and goop) my only gripe about the new FAQ ruling is that perfectly fluffy and non OP transport combos like having Scions/Skitarii ride in vendettas or Skitarii hitching a ride in Taurox Primes. They really should just ban non space marines from using drop pods and keep it as is (even if that does mean Eldar riding with DE)

  • Randy Randalman

    With Angels of Death and the latest FAQ, this list would have to change. Namely, a Culexus may be the only chance against Librarian-heavy death stars, and now Drop Pods don’t help much.

    What changes would a War Convocation player make to adjust?

  • Daniel Lee George Zimmerman

    how does the stalkers and infilitrator’s have a base 6+ invul?

    • Nick Vaughn

      It’s part of their Sicarian Battle Armor. Like term armor has a 2+ save and a 5+ invul.

      SBA confers a 4+ save and 6+ Invul.

      • Daniel Lee George Zimmerman

        TIL they have an invul, i must have not read that.

        • Nick Vaughn

          Yeah, he’s very right when he say’s how important it is to know the rules in this army. They use weapons/gear and have special rules unlike any other army out there. Add in that their the newest full army release to the scene and you have a recipe for even long time veterans to miss a plethora of little rules like the Invul save.

          I have the hard cover rule books for them, but bought the gamer edition digital versions just for the quick link to the rules without flipping through several pages of information. They’re not like marines our guard where I have been able to recall rules and weapon stats for almost 2 decades.

          • Daniel Lee George Zimmerman

            HAHA yeah, i need to reread all my stuff and is that link available on android or only apple?

  • Koszka

    The only reason people still lose to war convocation is that people still have no idea what the units in the codex do. I’ve watched multiple war convo players drown their opponents in an ocean of rules. It the only thing keeping this army alive usually.

    I had the luxury of playing an almost exact mirror of this list ( 2 less dragoons, one more dune crawler) with my skitarii + a knight paladin and found there to be so many holes in a list like this.

    • Poop leadership – Grav cannons are scary. Yes, but they are LD8 and sitting on a 4+ save and two wounds. Much like scat packs, you can usually kill one and the rest will fallback probably. The Skitarii infantry have good LD, but they are easily susceptible to just being slaughtered due to their small unit sizes and no access to stubborn or fearless ( ok. one canticles worth, but i doubt thats the canticle you’re using turn 1).

    • Small unit sizes – in order to field the convo, there isn’t much room to bulk out your units unless you go straight war convo ( something no one does) and save points by taking a Gallant. I actually see the full potential in those ranger/vanguard squads once they hit 10 man units. You even unlock another free Plasma gun! Props on a good sized dragoon squad. I never leave home without my 6 man unit. Once they break 3 models they actually become a threat to opponent LoW and deathstars ( the latter with the help of some vanguard hahaha).

    • Poor psychic defense – One psyker is helpful. A lvl.2 caster with adamantium will and a psychic hood can keep you mostly safe. The problem lies when you are out of hood range and against overwhelming psyker superiority. Bring the celuxsis. It’s very easy to keep it hidden, and when not up against psykers (IE tau) its still awesome due to its difficulty to hit.

    • poor anti-air defense – besides the lone dune crawler, the army doesn’t have much effective anti-flying stuff. Scryer skull is great and all, but the technomartyr relic is a way more valuable piece of wargear for this build. having BS2 snap fire for a grav cannon unit can be brutal! this list needs it! Flyrant builds will straight up obliterate a build like this to the point that its laughable. Str.6 ruins the skitarii portion of this list. One way to help them is to allocate some points into a second tech priest dominus (T4 2+ 5+fnp is a godsend for skitarii players)

    Best way to play war convo? I guess pray you play against a player who doesn’t know your codex.

    • Mr.Gold

      I know I would almost rather take a Cohort Cybernetica + Knight Warden/Crusader + other bits e.g. Kataphron Destroyers + Grav, Psyker/anti-psyker, anti-flyer etc… this gives minimum of 36 S6, Ap3 shots per turn (12 from the avenger, 24 from the Cohort if fully upgraded 😉 along with the dominus weapons). in rock solid units etc.

      • Koszka

        I love that formation! The cohort gives you a lot of Tactical Flexibility and can also dish out a lot of damage in shooting and cc. I just built my second unit of Castellans. The first were melee centric, but the newest unit is all phosphor. With a third unit in the works, I hope to do the 4 phosphor Castellans w/ Dataswap relic on a data smith, and the technomartyr relic on the Dominus. Toss in one more data smith and you have a unit that can reach out and touch 4 units a turn! Its a bit pricey, but man does it do work 🙂 That much BS2 overwatch is scary as hell for people. Not to mention you still have 2 data smiths w/ powerfists to handle models in combat at T7 🙂

        • Mr.Gold

          just make sure you have more kastellans than datasmiths or your lovely T7 will drop to T4

          • Koszka

            Totally. Especially when they drop anchor and fire twice those data smiths + dominos need to duck duck goose around the unit. hahaha

    • Nick Vaughn

      I play in a fairly large scene and Ad Mech is still a very rare site. Lots of players bought the models but I rarely see them take the field. You’re absolutely right when it comes to people not knowing what anything does. Unlike every other imperial faction, the Ad Mech use weapons and have names unique to themselves, making it difficult for even veteran players to keep track of what all the rules are.

      Even after a year of playing this army, I still am regularly having to reference my books since each unit between both books has several unique rules. I can’t imagine how perplexing it is to someone that rarely encounters the army.

      • Koszka

        I feel really bad when I play people with my Skitarii and Admech. With all the combos that can be unlocked a lot of players don’t see certain scenarios happen.

        Last week I played my Ad mech w/ GK allies.
        I tossed my librarian into a blob of 15 electro priests. I had Sanctuary, hammerhead, and gate. Turn one saw the unit kill 2 min units of flesh hounds, go super saiyan, then went off to cast hammerhead + sanctuary, use my +2 strength canticle, then charged to D thirster and a chaos knight turn 2. It was brutal and absolutely amazing. My opponent was pissed even after explaining all the rules and how they could combo off.

        The problem is that its a lot of info to take in right before a game kicks off. I may not think its a lot to swallow, but my opponents have little to no experience with the weirder units less commonly seen in those books.

        Units you never see in war convo, thus never really see them played in tourneys:
        • Breachers – torsion cannons are beastly when they hit. I call it the humbling cannon since most people like to take it on the chin from their character tanking the unit.

        • Electro priests – So many attacks. Once they hit combat they are re hard to put down in large numbers. With their maul str. of 5, they can put the damage on WK and infantry alike. Instant death is a beautiful thing. Lack of assault grenades may be rough on their first charge, but if utilizing the I10 Str.4 auto hit canticle, you could be sitting on a 3+ before your enemy swings 🙂

        • Fulgurite priests – Have a lot of potential in small squads, especially if you were looking for cheap ways to up your canticle count. Decent ranged output when in range. I need to build a unit still though 🙁

        • Castellans – Too expensive for war convo, but absolutely brutal is used correctly. Their reflection shield is amazing since its on a roll of 6 on any save!
        Bring the Grav cents to obliterate my unit, they’ll end up losing a cent or two for their troubles hahaha.

        • Effective synergy using Vanguard Skitarii – Seriously, dropping a unit’s Toughness by 1 is freaking glorious. Sadly, war convo just uses vanguard as a plasma caddy. My skitarii maniple doesn’t leave the forge unless I’m rocking 3 squads. Dropping 20-30 rad carbine shots at BS7 from each unit will make WK rue the day they came stomping into your deployment zone. The fact that you can ID thundercav units when you dual charge vanguard w/ dragoons is ridiculous. I can’t remember how many games I’ve ID’d entire thundercav stars, bike stars, Necron wraith units, or plague drone mobs. Bringing a Daemon prince to his knees in a single combat because of one wound sneaks through. Removing feel no pain rules hahaha

        • Mr.Gold

          one point to note the Priests Voltagheist field (giving them 5++) also gives S4 HoR, and do not suffer the penalty to their Initative when charging through terrain… therefore not needing assault grenades

          • Koszka

            Oh dang! Missed that. With the canticle, you could be getting four I 10 STR4 hit per model. sick!

            Thanks for the heads up on that!

      • Mr.Gold

        one thing i have done is write a bullet point list of the special rules that might effect the army in each phase e.g.:

        Pre Turn: Canticles/Imperitives, Scryerskulls
        Movement: Dunestrider
        Shooting: Dominus Repair, Luminagen, Dominus Maniple pick Target.

    • Mr.Gold

      Don’t forget the War Convecation means all units in it have the canticles special rules (including the knight), therefore you will nearly always have the max canticle to start with (i.e. 8+ units) also it includes a battle congregation therefore allowing it to reuse a canticle once per turn. allowing you to reroll to hit for two turns with another 2-3 turns of BS5-7 if you wish. or you could go Stealth & Shrouded for a couple of turns to protect your men until they get into weapons range (including the knight…)

      • Koszka

        True, the canticles can help with certain blind spots. Luckily for the opposition, most times all the blindspots can’t be covered at once 🙂

  • Stealthbadger

    Firstly, these sort of articles rankle me because they present fairly basic ideas as a ‘skill’. It’s already been pointed out that this is basically just take what the formation says you have to take and add one other formation. Is it just me or is the very little thought/decision making in that process?


    ‘There aren’t any really “easy wins” with War Convocation, except against inexperienced players, merely because they don’t know the capabilities of my list. Conversely, there are very few hard counters either, though if a Tau player has enough ignore cover that I can’t disrupt, they can give me a bad day too.,

    There are no easy wins but no hard counters. Is that sort of contradictory. Also is your point there are no easy wins in the tourney cheese combo world? I mean if you can’t win with a 500 point advantage via free wargear against a ‘normal’ list that would be… Surprising. I’m sorry but skitarri mech do not exactly suck.

    And then criticising eldar or SM players seems a little off. I mean why is getting tons of upgrades for free ok but not a few Razorbacks or an under costed wraith knight? I play marines and skit mech. This is way more cheesy than the Demi company free transports in my opinion.

    Previously I’ve characterised this kind of attitude/play style as being a dick. I was wrong and that’s not the case. It just another persons version of fun. It’s fine for them to enjoy It. But presenting it as some sort of revelation on tactics just seems kind of dumb. Plus as noted it’s now dead as a list anyway.

    • generalchaos34

      obsec vs non-obsec is a big difference in play. The main offender here in that regard is SM because they decided to make everything Obsec for some reason. Granted he has a big pile of free wargear, but free wargear only goes so far when your opponent claims the objectives and has more bodies than you. There are plenty of solid weakness for this list and its generally pretty slow

      • Stealthbadger

        I understand that but then he also says he can kill anything especially with his knight killing 2 – 3 units a turn which is believable given the free dakka. You can’t ob sec if you are dead 🙂

  • dinodoc

    Can we get a follow up article on how the list changes now that the Drop Pod taxis has been declared heretical for the Tech Priests?

  • n00bzilla99

    I’ve seen this army, and as an ad mech player with 5000 points of painted stuff, it’s completely bogus that tournaments allow stuff like this.

    I mean, why not just play his orks as imperial guard or something else? Wait… This guy already has. He proxies his army to be whatever he wants power wise. Sad that nobody says anything.

  • Painjunky

    “The army is far, far more complex then “Drop in, declare shroudsong, and shoot stuffz!~!”.

    Really??? It’s a top tier list. It’s pretty much point and click.

    • dinodoc

      The FAQ removed it as a top tier list.

    • Pablo Martinez

      Did he directly quote you? Matt is literally making fun of people like you. It isn’t point and click, not everything in the army can deal with anything (just read some above comments). The army has weaknesses and your statement only dilutes how much of an accomplishment it was for Matt Root to not only get second place, but also win in an environment where he shouldn’t have been able to.